Origin of writing

Existen diversos hallazgos de representaciones gráficas previas a la escritura propiamente dicha, como los de las cuevas de Chauvet (1995), Cosquer (1994) o Lascaux (1940) en Francia, con imágenes que datan de 31 000, 24 000 y 15 000 años aproximadamente de antigüedad, respectivamente, o la cueva de Altamira (descubierta en 1868). El desarrollo de la escritura pudo tener motivaciones y funciones completamente diferentes de las que llevaron a crear otro tipo de representaciones gráficas.[cita requerida]. Investigaciones que vienen realizándose desde finales del pasado siglo, han permitido la compilación de un signario nuclear básico de unos ochenta y ocho signos lineales que fueron usados para grafiar o escribir secuencias ordenadas que combinan y articulan signos como en cualquier escritura de signos lineales y geométricos, lo que ha permitido el desarrollo de una hipótesis sobre el uso de una Escritura Lineal Paleolítica (ELPA) logofonográfica o glotográfica durante el Paleolítico Superior, al parecer ya desde tiempos del Auriñaciense, o con mayor probabilidad desde el Solutrense.6

While neolithic writing is a current research topic, conventional history assumes that the writing process first evolved from economic necessity in the ancient Near East. Writing most likely began as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.[32]

The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze Age of the late 4th millennium BC. The Sumerian archaic cuneiform script and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400 to 3200 BC with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC. It is generally agreed that Sumerian writing was an independent invention; however, it is debated whether Egyptian writing was developed completely independently of Sumerian, or was a case of cultural diffusion.Globular envelope with a cluster of accountancy tokens, Uruk period, from SusaLouvre Museum

Archaeologist Denise Schmandt-Besserat determined the link between previously uncategorized clay «tokens», the oldest of which have been found in the Zagros region of Iran, and the first known writing, Mesopotamian cuneiform.[33] In approximately 8000 BC, the Mesopotamians began using clay tokens to count their agricultural and manufactured goods. Later they began placing these tokens inside large, hollow clay containers (bulla, or globular envelopes) which were then sealed. The quantity of tokens in each container came to be expressed by impressing, on the container’s surface, one picture for each instance of the token inside. They next dispensed with the tokens, relying solely on symbols for the tokens, drawn on clay surfaces. To avoid making a picture for each instance of the same object (for example: 100 pictures of a hat to represent 100 hats), they ‘counted’ the objects by using various small marks. In this way the Sumerians added «a system for enumerating objects to their incipient system of symbols».

Signario_de_la_Escritura_Lineal_Paleolítica_(ELPA),
Compilado_tras_veinte_años de investigaciones y catalogación
de_los_registros_de_Arte_Rupestre
y_grafismo_usados_durante_el_Paleolítico_Superior.
Globular envelope with a cluster of accountancy tokens, Uruk period, from SusaLouvre Museum
lapida iberica con inscripcn en ibero de valencia en bicorp siglo III ac MAN
Signario ib´érico, Ferrer i Raje 2005
runas hälsinge o sin poste de suecia
Runas Dalecarlianas
Piedra de Rok

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